A white mob surrounds a street car during the riots in East St. Louis in 1917. Racial tension that brewed as black workers moved here from the South for jobs, sometimes working as strikebreakers, boiled over in July. White mobs shot and beat blacks, including children, as police officers and state militiamen largely stood by. The official death count was 39 blacks and nine whites, although police estimated a death toll closer to 100. Nobody knows, largely because local investigations were inept. Image courtesy W.E.B. Du Bois Papers, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst.